The Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch.
The English conquered the New Netherland colony in 1664, though the situation did not change substantially until 1682 when the area was included in William Penn's charter for Pennsylvania.
The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony.
Throughout the 19th century, Philadelphia hosted a variety of industries and businesses, the largest being textiles. Centennial, was celebrated in 1876 with the Centennial Exposition, the first official World's Fair in the United States.By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed Boston to become the largest city and busiest port in British America, and second in the British Empire after London. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers.The state capital was moved to Lancaster in 1799, then Harrisburg in 1812, while the federal government was moved to Washington, D. New York City surpassed Philadelphia in population by 1790.Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a grid plan to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and orchards.The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots.In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt, Charles II of England granted Penn a charter for what would become the Pennsylvania colony.